Brain and Language Lab


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Hopp, H., Reifegerste, J., & Ullman, M.T. (in press, 2024). Lexical effects on L2 grammar acquisition: Testing psycholinguistic and neurocognitive predictions. Language Learning. 

Evans, T.M., Lipscomb, D.W., Earle, F.S., Del Tufo, S.N., Lum, J.A.G., Cutting, L.E., & Ullman, M.T. (in press, 2024). Declarative Memory Supports Children’s Math Skills: A Longitudinal Study. PLoS ONE.

Ullman, M. T., Clark, G. M., Pullman, M. Y., Lovelett, J. T., Pierpont, E. I., Jiang, X., & Turkeltaub, P. E. (2024). The neuroanatomy of developmental language disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Nature Human Behaviour, 8(5), 962-975. (Supplementary Information)

Miklashevsky, A., Reifegerste, J., García, A. M., Pulvermüller, F., Balota, D. A., Veríssimo, J., & Ullman, M. T. (2024). Embodied cognition comes of age: A processing advantage for action words is modulated by aging and the task.. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General. Advance online publication.


Prado, E. L., Sebayang, S. K., Adawiyah, S. R., Alcock, K. J., Ullman, M. T., Muadz, H., & Shankar, A. H. (2021). Maternal depression is the predominant persistent risk for child cognitive and social-emotional problems from early childhood to pre-adolescence: A longitudinal cohort study. Social Science & Medicine, 289, 114396.

Karatas, N. B., Özemir, O., Lovelett, J. T., Demir, B., Erkol, K. Veríssimo, J.,  Erçetin, G., and Ullman, M.T. (2021). Improving second language vocabulary learning and retention by leveraging memory enhancement techniques: a multidomain pedagogical approach. Language Teaching Research, 13621688211053525.

Arthur, D. T., Ullman, M. T., & Earle, F. S. (2021). Declarative memory predicts phonological processing abilities in adulthood. Frontiers in Psychology, 12, 1813.

Reifegerste, J., Meyer, A., Zwitserlood, P., & Ullman, M.T. (2021).  Aging affects steaks more than knives: Evidence that the processing of words related to motor skills is relatively spared in aging. Brain and Language, 218, 104941. (Supplemental Material).

Earle, F. S., & Ullman, M. T. (2021). Deficits of learning in procedural memory and consolidation in declarative memory in adults with developmental language disorder. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 64(2), 531-541.

Reifegerste, J.,  Veríssimo, J., Rugg, M. D., Pullman, M. Y., Babcock, L., Glei, D. A., Weinstein, M., Goldman, N., & Ullman, M. T. (2021). Early-life education may help bolster declarative memory in old age, especially for women. Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition, 28(2), 218-252.


Reifegerste, J., Estabrooke, I. V., Russell, L. E., Veríssimo, J., Johari, K., Wilmarth, B., Pagan, F. L., Moussa, C., & Ullman, M. T. (2020). Can sex influence the neurocognition of language? Evidence from Parkinson’s disease. Neuropsychologia, 148, 107633.

Pliatsikas, C., Meteyard, L., Veríssimo, J., DeLuca, V., Shattuck, K., & Ullman, M. T. (2020). The effect of bilingualism on brain development from early childhood to young adulthood. Brain Structure and Function, 225(7), 2131-2152.

Sengottuvel, K., Vasudevamurthy, A., Ullman, M. T., & Earle, F. S. (2020). Learning and Consolidation of Declarative Memory in Good and Poor Readers of English as a Second Language. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 715.

Earle, F. S., Del Tufo, S., Evans, T. M., Lum, J. A. G., Cutting, L. E., & Ullman, M. T. (2020). Domain-general learning and memory substrates of reading acquisition. Mind, Brain, and Education, 14(2), 176-186.

Janacsek, K., Shattuck, K. F., Tagarelli, K. M., Lum, J. A. G., Turkeltaub, P. E., & Ullman, M. T. (2020) Sequence learning in the human brain: A functional neuroanatomical meta-analysis of serial reaction time studies. NeuroImage, 207, 116387. 

Ullman, M. T. (2020). The Declarative/Procedural Model: A Neurobiologically-Motivated Theory of First and Second Language. In B. VanPatten, G. D. Keating, & S. Wulff (Eds.), Theories in Second Language Acquisition (3rd ed., pp. 128-161). Routledge.

Koch, F-S., Sundqvist, A., Birberg Thornberg, U., Nyberg, S., Lum, J. A. G, Ullman, M. T., Barr, R., Rudner, M., & Heimann, M. (2020). Procedural memory in infancy: Evidence from implicit sequence learning in an eye-tracking paradigm. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 191, 104733.

Koch, F. S., Sundqvist, A., Thornberg, U. B., Ullman, M. T., Barr, R., Rudner, M., & Heimann, M. (2020). Data and analysis script for infant and adult eye movement in an adapted ocular-motor serial reaction time task assessing procedural memory. Data in brief, 29, 105108. (Data in brief companion paper to Koch et al. just above)

Ullman, M. T., Earle, F. S., Walenski, M., & Janacsek, K. (2020). The neurocognition of developmental disorders of language. Annual Review of Psychology, 71, 389–417.


Johari, K., Walenski, M., Reifegerste, J., Ashrafi, F., Behroozmand, R., Daemi, M., & Ullman, M. T. (2019). A dissociation between syntactic and lexical processing in Parkinson’s disease. Journal of Neurolinguistics, 51, 221-235.

Tagarelli, K. M., Shattuck, K. F., Turkeltaub, P. E., & Ullman, M. T. (2019). Language learning in the adult brain: A neuroanatomical meta-analysis of lexical and grammatical learning. NeuroImage, 193, 178-200. (Supplementary Tables).

Clark, G. M., Barham, M. P., Ware, A. T., Plumridge, J. M. A., O'Sullivan, B., Lyons, K., Fitzgibbon, T., Buck, B., Youssef, G. J., Ullman, M. T., Enticott, P. G., & Lum, J. A. G. (2019). Dissociable implicit sequence learning mechanisms revealed by continuous theta-burst stimulation. Behavioral Neuroscience, 133(4), 341–349.

Conway, C. M., Arciuli, J., Lum, J. A. G., & Ullman, M. T. (2019). Seeing problems that may not exist: A reply to West et al.’s (2018) questioning of the procedural deficit hypothesis. Developmental Science, 22(4), e12814.

Johari, K., Walenski, M., Reifegerste, J., Ashrafi, F., & Ullman, M. T. (2019). Sex, dopamine, and language: A study of inflectional morphology in Parkinson’s disease. Neuropsychology, 33, 508-522. 

Lum, J. A. G., Lammertink, I., Clark, G. M., Fuelscher, I., Hyde, C., Enticott, P. G., & Ullman, M. T. (2019). Visuospatial sequence learning on the serial reaction time task modulates the P1 event-related potential. Psychophysiology, 56(2), e13292.

Pliatsikas, C., Veríssimo, J., Babcock, L., Pullman, M. Y., Glei, D. A., Weinstein, M., Goldman, N., & Ullman, M. T. (2019). Working memory in older adults declines with age, but is modulated by sex and education. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 72(6), 1308-1327. (Supplemental Material).


Conti-Ramsden, G., Ullman, M. T., & Lum, J. A. G. (2015). The relation between receptive grammar and procedural, declarative, and working memory in specific language impairment. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 1090. 

Ullman, M. T., & Pullman, M. Y. (2015). Adapt and overcome: Can a single brain system compensate for autism, dyslexia and OCD? Scientific American Mind, 24-25.

Németh, D., Janacsek, K., Turi, Z., Lukacs, A., Peckham, D., Szanka, S., Gazso, D., Lovassy, N. & Ullman, M. T. (2015). The production of nominal and verbal inflection in an agglutinative language: Evidence from Hungarian. PLoS ONE, 10(3), e0119003.

Ullman, M. T., & Pullman, M. Y. (2015, March 17). Powerful memory system may compensate for autism's deficits. Simons Foundation Autism Research Initiative Newsletter.

Sandberg, K., Umans, J. G., & *The Georgetown Consensus Conference Work Group. (2015) Recommendations concerning the new U.S. National Institutes of Health initiative to balance the sex of cells and animals in preclinical research. The FASEB Journal, 29, 1646-1652. *Work Group Member: M.T. Ullman. 

Ullman, M.T., & Pullman, M. Y. (2015). A compensatory role for declarative memory in neurodevelopmental disorders. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 51, 205-222.

Lum, J. A. G., Ullman, M. T., & Conti-Ramsden, G. (2015). Verbal declarative memory impairments in specific language impairment are related to working memory deficits. Brain and Language, 142, 76–85. 

Ullman, M. T. (2015). The declarative/procedural model: A neurobiologically motivated theory of first and second language. In B. VanPatten & J. Williams (Eds.), Theories in second language acquisition: An introduction (2nd ed., pp. 135-158). Routledge.


Ullman, M. T. (2013). The role of declarative and procedural memory in disorders of language. Linguistic Variation, 13(2), 133-154.  [This paper is an updated version of Ullman, 2008, in Handbook of the Neuroscience of Language.]

Bowden, H. W., Steinhauer, K., Sanz, C., & Ullman, M. T. (2013). Native-like brain processing of syntax can be attained by university foreign language learners. Neuropsychologia, 51, 2492-2511.   (Supplementary Data).

Dye, C. D., Walenski, M., Prado, E., Mostofsky, S. H., & Ullman, M. T. (2013). Children's computation of complex linguistic forms: A study of frequency and imageability effects. PLoS ONE, 8(9), e74683.

Hedenius, M., Persson, J., Alm, P. A., Ullman, M. T., Howard, J. H., Howard, D. V., & Jennische, M. (2013). Impaired implicit sequence learning in children with developmental dyslexia. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 34(11), 3924-3935.

Lum, J. A. G., Ullman, M. T., & Conti-Ramsden, G. (2013). Procedural learning is impaired in dyslexia: Evidence from a meta-analysis of serial reaction time studies. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 34(10), 3460-3476.

Hedenius, M., Ullman, M. T., Alm, P., Jennische, M., & Persson, J. (2013). Enhanced recognition memory after incidental encoding in children with developmental dyslexia. PLoS ONE, 8(5), e63998.

Ullman, M. T. (2013). Declarative/procedural model. In P. Robinson (Ed.), Routledge Encyclopedia of Second Language Acquisition (pp. 160-164). Routledge.

Ullman, M. T. (2013).  Declarative/procedural model of language. In H. Pashler (Ed.), Encyclopedia of the Mind (pp. 224-226). Sage Publications.

Lum, J. A. G., Conti-Ramsden, G., & Ullman, M. T. (2013). The role of verbal and non-verbal memory in the Family Pictures subtest: Data from children with specific language impairment. Child Neuropsychology, 19(6), 648-661.


Prado, E. L., Alcock, K. J., Muadz, H., Ullman, M. T., & Shankar, A. H. for the SUMMIT Study Group. (2012). Maternal multiple micronutrient supplements and child cognition: A randomized trial in Indonesia. Pediatrics, 130(3), e536-546.

Babcock, L., Stowe, J. C., Maloof, C. J., Brovetto, C., & Ullman, M. T. (2012). The storage and composition of inflected forms in adult-learned second language: A study of the influence of length of residence, age of arrival, sex, and other factors. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 15(4), 820-840.

Nemeth, D., Dye, C. D., Sefcsik, T., Janacsek, K., Turi, Z., Londe, Z., Klivenyi, P., Kincses, T. Z., Nikoletta, S., Vecsei, L., & Ullman, M. T. (2012). Language deficits in pre-symptomatic Huntington's Disease: Evidence from Hungarian. Brain and Language, 121(3), 248-253.

Phillips, L., Litcofsky, K. A., Pelster, M., Gelfand, M., Ullman, M. T., & Charles, P. D. (2012) Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation impacts language in early Parkinson's disease. PLoS ONE, 7(8), e42829.

Lum, J. A. G., Conti-Ramsden, G., Page, D., & Ullman, M. T. (2012). Working, declarative and procedural memory in specific language impairment. Cortex, 48(9), 1138-1154.

Newman, A. J., Tremblay, A., Nichols, E. S., Neville, H. J., & Ullman, M. T. (2012). The influence of language proficiency on lexical-semantic processing in native and late learners of English: ERP evidence. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 24(5), 1205-1223.

Morgan-Short, K., Finger, I., Grey, S., & Ullman, M. T. (2012). Second language processing shows increased native-like neural responses after months of no exposure. PLoS ONE, 7(3), e32974.

Prado, E. L., Ullman, M. T., Muadz, H., Alcock, K. J., Shankar, A. H., & the SUMMIT Study Group. (2012). The effect of maternal multiple micronutrient supplementation on cognition and mood during pregnancy and postpartum in Indonesia: A randomized trial. PLoS ONE, 7(3), e32519.

Morgan-Short, K., Steinhauer, K., Sanz, C. & Ullman, M. T. (2012). Explicit and implicit second language training differentially affect the achievement of native-like brain activation patterns. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 24(4), 933-947.

Morgan-Short, K., & Ullman, M. T. (2012). The neurocognition of second language. In A. Mackey & S. Gass (Eds.), Handbook of Second Language Acquisition (pp. 282-299). Routledge.


Ullman, M. T. (2005). A Cognitive Neuroscience Perspective on Second Language Acquisition: The Declarative/Procedural Model. In C. Sanz (Ed.), Mind and Context in Adult Second Language Acquisition: Methods, Theory, and Practice (pp. 141-178). Georgetown University Press.

Ullman, M. T. (2005). More is sometimes more: Redundant mechanisms in the mind and brain. Observer, 18(12), 7, 46. (invited Presidential Column)

Ullman, M. T., Pancheva, R., Love, T., Yee, E., Swinney, D., & Hickok, G. (2005). Neural correlates of lexicon and grammar: Evidence from the production, reading, and judgment of inflection in aphasia. Brain and Language, 93(2), 185-238.

MacWhinney, B. (2005). Commentary on Ullman et al. Brain and Language, 93(2), 239-242.

Embick, D., & Marantz, A. (2005). Cognitive neuroscience and the English past tense: Comments on the paper by Ullman et al. Brain and Language, 93(2), 243-247.

Ullman, M. T. & Walenski, M. (2005). Reply: Moving Past the Past Tense. Brain and Language, 93(2), 248-252.

Ullman, M. T., & Pierpont, E. I. (2005). Specific language impairment is not specific to language: The procedural deficit hypothesis. Cortex, 41(3), 399-433. (special issue on "The neurobiology of developmental disorders", edited by D. Bishop, M. Eckert and C. Leonard)

Accompanying commentary requested by the editors: Thomas, M. S. C. (2005). Characterising Compensation. Cortex, 41(3), 434-442.

Brovetto, C., & Ullman, M. T. (2005) The Mental Representation and Processing of Spanish Verbal Morphology. In D. Eddington (ed.), Selected Proceedings of the 7th Hispanic Linguistics Symposium (pp. 98-105). Cascadilla Press.

Walenski, M., & Ullman, M. T. (2005). The science of language. The Linguistic Review, 22, 327-346.


Ullman, M. T. (2004). Contributions of neural memory circuits to language: The declarative/procedural model. Cognition, 92(1-2), 231-270.

Drury, J. E., & Ullman, M. T. (2002). The memorization of complex forms in aphasia: Implications for recovery. Brain and Language, 83, 139-141.

Estabrooke, I. V., Mordecai, K., Maki, P., & Ullman, M. T. (2002). The effect of sex hormones on language processing. Brain and Language, 83, 143-146.

Pinker, S., & Ullman, M. T. (2002). The past and future of the past tense. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 6(11), 456-463.

This article was accompanied by three other articles in the same issue. Together the four articles constitute a debate on the neural and computational bases of inflectional morphology, as a case study of the neurocognition of language. The three other articles were:

McClelland, J. L., & Patterson, K. (2002). Rules or connections in past-tense inflections: what does the evidence rule out? Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 6(11), 465-472.

Pinker, S., & Ullman, M. T. (2002). Combination and structure, not gradedness, is the issue: Reply to McClelland and Patterson. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 6(11), 472-474.

McClelland, J. L. (2002). "Words or Rules" cannot exploit the regularity in exceptions: Reply to Pinker and Ullman. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 6(11), 464-465.

The articles by Pinker & Ullman and McClelland & Patterson engendered several commentaries and responses:

Seidenberg, M., & Joanisse, M. (2003). Show us the model. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 7(3), 106-107.

Ramscar, M. (2003). The past-tense debate: exocentric form versus the evidence. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 7(3), 107-108.

Pinker, S., & Ullman, M. (2003). Beyond one model per phenomenon. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 7(3), 108-109.

Marslen-Wilson, W., & Tyler, L. (2003). Capturing underlying differentiation in the human language system. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 7(2), 62-63.

McClelland, J., & Patterson, K. (2003). Differentiation and integration in human language: Reply to Marslen-Wilson and Tyler. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 7(2), 63-64.

Steinhauer, K., & Ullman, M. T. (2002). Consecutive ERP effects of morpho-phonology and morpho-syntax. Brain and Language, 83, 62-65.

Ullman, M. T., Estabrooke, I. V., Steinhauer, K., Brovetto, C., Pancheva, R., Ozawa, K., Mordecai, K., & Maki, P. (2002). Sex differences in the neurocognition of language. Brain and Language, 83, 141-143.

Kensinger, E. A., Ullman, M. T., & Corkin, S. (2001). Bilateral medial temporal lobe damage does not affect lexical or grammatical processing: Evidence from the amnesic patient H. M. Hippocampus, 11(4), 347-360.

Newman, A. J., Pancheva, R., Ozawa, K., Neville, H. J., & Ullman, M. T. (2001). An event-related fmri study of syntactic and semantic violations. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 30(3), 339-364.

Steinhauer, K., Pancheva, R., Newman, A. J., Gennari, S., & Ullman, M. T. (2001). How the mass counts: An electrophysiological approach to the processing of lexical features. Neuroreport, 12(5), 999-1005.

Ullman, M. T. (2001). The declarative/procedural model of lexicon and grammar. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 30(1), 37-69.

Ullman, M. T. (2001). The neural basis of lexicon and grammar in first and second language: The declarative/procedural model. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 4(1), 105-122.

Ullman, M. T. (2001). A neurocognitive perspective on language: The declarative/procedural model. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 2, 717-726.

van der Lely, H. K. J., & Ullman, M. T. (2001). Past tense morphology in specifically language impaired and normally developing children. Language and Cognitive Processes, 16(2), 177-217.


Ullman, M. T., & Izvorski, R. (2000). What is special about broca's area? Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 23(1), 52-54.

Ullman, M. T., & Gopnik, M. (1999). Inflectional morphology in a family with inherited specific language impairment. Applied Psycholinguistics, 20(1), 51-117.

Ullman, M. T. (1999). The functional neuroanatomy of inflectional morphology. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 22(6), 1041-1042.

Ullman, M. T. (1999). Acceptability ratings of regular and irregular past tense forms: Evidence for a dual-system model of language from word frequency and phonological neighbourhood effects. Language and Cognitive Processes, 14(1), 47-67.

Ullman, M. T. (1999). Naming tools and using rules: Evidence that a frontal/basal-ganglia system underlies both motor skill knowledge and grammatical rule use. Brain and Language, 69(3), 316-318.

Izvorski, R., & Ullman, M. T. (1999). Verb inflection and the hierarchy of functional categories in agrammatic anterior aphasia. Brain and Language, 69(3), 288-291.

Ullman, M. T., Corkin, S., Coppola, M., Hickok, M., Growdon, J. H., Koroshetz, W. J., & Pinker, S. (1997). A neural dissociation within language: Evidence that the mental dictionary is part of declarative memory, and that grammatical rules are processed by the procedural system. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 9(2), 266-276.

Marcus, G. F., Pinker, S., Ullman, M. T., Hollander, M., Rosen, T. J., Xu, F., & Clahsen, H. (1992). Overregularization in Language Acquisition. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 57(4), 1-183.